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Jacobabad

Jacobabad is a city in Sindh, Pakistan, serving as both the capital city of Jacobabad District and the administrative centre of Jacobabad Taluka, an administrative subdivision of the district. The city itself is subdivided into 8 Union Councils. Sitting very far away to the provincial boundaries of Sindh and Balochistan, Jacobabad became a city on the site of an existing village (Khangarh), and is crossed by the Pakistan Railway and many main roads of the province.

There are many cities in Pakistan that bore the names of Englishmen who came to rule the Indian Sub-Continent in the 19th century, like Cambellpur (now Attock), Montgomery (now Sahiwal), Lyall Pur (now Faisalabad) and Jacobabad. While all other names of the cities have since been changed, Jacobabad remains unchanged. Jacobabad, a small city in the Sind Province on the border between Sindh and Balochistan provinces, was founded near the village of Khangarh in 1847 by Brigadier General John Jacob, who was the Commandant of the Sindh Horse. Jacob later became the first deputy commissioner of the Jacobabad district.

The city had a cantonment for a cavalry regiment, with accommodation for caravans from Central Asia. The city was incorporated as a municipality in 1875. The general laid out the modern city died and was buried there in 1858 , and left a marvelous Victoria Tower in his remembrance in the heart of the city. He is also commemorated by monuments, and even his horse has been memorialized by a mud pyramid.

The city is famous for its consistently high temperatures and holds the record for the highest temperature recorded in Pakistan, 126° F (52° C) in the shade. The city is the administrative centre of Jacobabad Taluka, an administrative subdivision of the district. Jacobabad city is subdivided into 8 Union Councils. Jacobadad is highly multicultural, with ethnic and tribal groups including Dashti, Pechuho, Banglani, Sunderani, Unar, Abro, Soomro, Khoso, Bhayo, Mangrio, Surhio, Jakhrani, Marri, Gabol, Jarwar and Brohi. The area is predominantly Muslim with Hindu and Christian minorities.

The city also has a commercial airport co-located with the Shahbaz Air Base of pakistan Air Force.Shahbaz Air Base recently assumed prominence as one of three Pakistani air bases used by U.S. and allied forces to support the Operation Enduring Freedom campaign in Afghanistan. Pakistan agreed to an American request for a long-term, logistics and support base presence at the Shahbaz Air Base in Jacobabad following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The US forces, mainly from the United States Air Force, were stationed there from Oct 2001 to Nov 2004.

It is watered by two canals. An annual horse show is held in January. There are many educational institutions in Jacobabad. One of them is S.M.A.M High School. This high school is the oldest educational institute in Jacobabad, and is over 100 years old. Several famous teachers served in this historical institute. Jacobabad has produced many poets, writers, teachers and social workers. Abdul Karim Gadai was a famous poet and many other famous poets have come from the Jacobabad district.Harappa

This was the first of the Indus Valley Civilization sites to be discovered, but in size and condition it is inferior to Moenjodaro. Located 186 km south-west of Lahore, Harappa is reached via the station at Sahiwal, formerly known as Montgomery. Situated beside an earlier course of the Ravi River, Harappa was discovered in 1920/21, but through the ages the site was quarried for bricks and most of the buildings so far excavated are in poor condition. Like Moenjodaro the excavations have revealed a series of cities, stacked one upon another. The site, with its citadel and great granary, seems similar in many ways to Moenjodaro and like its southern sister-city appear to have thrived around 2000 to 1700 BC with an economy based largely on agriculture and trade. The Harappan society seems to have been egalitarian, pursuing a rather simple way of life.

The cemeteries discovered at Harappa confirm that the Indus Valley people buried their bead, many of them wearing finger rings, necklaces of steatite beads, anklets of paste bead, earnings and shell bangles. Copper mirrors, antimony rods, sheer spoons and vessels and urns of various shapes and size lay in the graves. Some of the female skeletons had anklets of tiny beads and girdles studded with some-precious stones.

Excavations have recalled evidence of some pre-Harappa material which shows strong affinity with the Kot Diji finds. On display at the Museum are excavated material, including terracotta toys, gamesman, jewellery, animal figurines, bronze utensils statuettes etc.

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